Mainland Chinese Real Estate Investment Overseas (MCREIO) plunged to a seven-year low of US$3.8 billion in the first half of 2019, falling 68 per cent over the

What are some of the most amazing cities in the world?

London and New York City are the current contenders for most powerful or influential global city, though that may change in the decades ahead. The following are the most up-to-date city versus city rankings between the two in a wide variety of global city metrics, from financial power to livability, from a diversity of sources.

The list includes everything from poll-based listings by second rank online publications to gold standard meta-analyses by the reputable Big Four auditor groups. Generally speaking, you can take any study by the likes of Deloitte, PricewaterhouseCoopers, KPMG and Ernst & Young to be peer review-standard reliable and comprehensive.

I’ll leave it to you to decide which is greater.

Economic, Financial and General Rankings

Cities of Opportunity (Economy, Business, Innovation, Intellectual Capital, Technology) – PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2016

1. London
2. Singapore
3. Toronto
4. Paris
5. Amsterdam
6. New York
7. Stockholm
8. San Francisco
9. Hong Kong
10. Sydney

Global Financial Centres Index – Z/Yen, March 2017

1. London
2. New York
3. Singapore
4. Hong Kong
5. Tokyo
6. San Francisco
7. Chicago
8. Sydney
9. Boston
10. Toronto

Globaltown – Deloitte, 2013

Financial services

1. London
2. Chicago
3. New York
4. Boston
5. Hong Kong

Technology, media, communications

1. London
2. Los Angeles
3. New York
4. Singapore
5. Hong Kong

Business and professional services

1. London
2. New York
3. Chicago
4. Los Angeles
5. Boston

Consumer Business

1. Los Angeles
2. London
3. Chicago
4. Singapore
5. New York

Education

1. London
2. New York
3. Hong Kong
4. Sydney
5. Boston

Culture

1. London
2. New York
3. Los Angeles
4. Paris
5. Singapore

Life sciences

1. Los Angeles
2. New York
3. Toronto
4. Boston
5. Chicago

Global Power City Index (Economy, R&D, Culture, Livability, Accessibility) – Mori Memorial Foundation, 2017

1. London
2. New York
3. Tokyo
4. Paris
5. Singapore
6. Seoul
7. Amsterdam
8. Berlin
9. Hong Kong
10. Sydney

City Momentum Index (Transformative Projects/Policies, Economy, Real Estate) – Jones Lang LaSalle, 2017

1. Bangalore
2. Ho Chi Minh City
3. Silicon Valley
4. Shanghai
5. Hyderabad
6. London
7. Austin
8. Hanoi
9. Boston
10. Nairobi

The World’s Most Influential Cities (Business, Foreign Investment, Finance) – Forbes, 2014

1. London
2. New York
3. Paris
4. Singapore
5. Tokyo
6. Hong Kong
7. Dubai
8= Beijing
8= Sydney
10= Los Angeles
10= San Francisco Bay Area

Global Cities Index – AT Kearney, 2016

1. London
2. New York
3. Paris
4. Tokyo
5. Hong Kong
6. Los Angeles
7. Chicago
8. Singapore
9. Beijing
10. Washington DC

Cities in Motion Index (Economy, Human Capital, Transit, Technology, Governance) – IESE, 2017

1. New York
2. London
3. Paris
4. Boston
5. San Francisco
6. Washington D.C.
7. Seoul
8. Tokyo
9. Berlin
10. Amsterdam

Global Economic Power Index – Richard Florida/CityLab, 2015

1. New York
2. London
3. Tokyo
4. Hong Kong
5. Paris
6. Singapore
7. Los Angeles
8. Seoul
9. Vienna
10. Stockholm/Toronto (tied)

This study has a number of errors. Among these, it uses the 4 point score from the UN’s City Prosperity Index, which excludes the equity index, though the author references it in his city ranking. Using the correct 5 point score and the most up-to-date GFCI from Z/Yen (2015), the correct ranking should be as follows (score correction is in brackets):

1= New York 38 (-10)
1= London 38 (-2)

3. Tokyo 34 (+5)
4. Hong Kong 21
5. Paris 18 (-1)
6. Singapore 17
7. Los Angeles 13
8. Seoul 12 (+1)
9. Vienna 10
10. Oslo/Helsinki (tied) 9 (+6)/(+4)

Global Cities Investment Monitor (Foreign Direct Investments) – KPMG, 2017

Global image

1. New York
2. London
3. Paris
4. Tokyo
5. Hong Kong
6. Shanghai
7. Berlin
8. Singapore
9. Frankfurt
10. Dubai

Global attractiveness

1. London
2. New York

3. Paris
4. Shanghai
5. Singapore
6. Tokyo
7. Dubai
8. Berlin
9. Hong Kong
10. Los Angeles

Number of greenfield investments

1. London
2. Singapore
3. Dubai
4. Shanghai
5. Hong Kong
6. New York
7. Paris
8. Sydney
9. Bangalore
10. Tokyo

Global Market Perspectives (Real Estate Markets) – Jones Lang LaSalle, 2015

Global real estate health monitor

1. Beijing
2. Boston
3. Chicago
4. Dubai
5. Frankfurt
6. Hong Kong
7. London
8. Los Angeles
9. Madrid
10. Mexico City

Direct commercial real estate investments, 2015

1. New York
2. London
3. Paris
4. Los Angeles
5. Tokyo
6. Chicago
7. Shanghai
8. Boston
9. Washington DC
10. Hong Kong

Dynamics Of A Global City (Office Market Investments) – Savills, 2014

1. London
2. New York
3. Tokyo
4. Paris
5. Los Angeles
6. San Francisco
7. Boston
8. Washington DC
9. Sydney
10. Chicago

World Residential Markets (Residential real estate) – Savills 2016

City market typical prices (prime two bed apartment)

1. Hong Kong
2. London
3. Paris
4. Singapore
5. New York
6. Shanghai
7. Dubai
8. Milan
9. San Francisco
10. Sydney

Annual Foreign Investment Survey (Real Estate Investment) – AFIRE, 2016

1. New York
2. London
3. Los Angeles
4. Berlin
5. San Francisco
6. Paris
7. Tokyo
8. Washington DC

Global Investor Intentions Survey (Real Estate Investment) – CBRE, 2015

1. London
2. Tokyo
3. San Francisco
4. Sydney
5. New York
6. Madrid
7. Dallas
8. Los Angeles
9. Seattle
10. Paris

Winning in Growth Cities (Real Estate Investment) – Cushman & Wakefield, 2016

Importance to global investors

1. London
2. New York
3. Paris
4. Sydney
5. Tokyo
6. Washington DC
7. Berlin
8. Amsterdam
9. Frankfurt
10. Boston

Investment volume

1. New York
2. London
3. Tokyo
4. Los Angeles
5. San Francisco
6. Paris
7. Chicago
8. Washington DC
9. Dallas
10. Atlanta

Global Location Trends (Foreign Investment, Brand Appeal) – IBM, 2017

1. London
2. Amsterdam-Rotterdam
3. Paris
4. Singapore
5. Bangkok
6. Chicago
7. Ho Chi Minh City
8. Dubai
9. Shanghai
10. Berlin

Office Space Across the World (Most Expensive Office Locations) – Cushman & Wakefield, 2015

1. London
2. Hong Kong
3. New York
4. Rio
5. New Delhi
6. Moscow
7. Tokyo
8. Beijig
9. Sydney
10. Paris

Industrial Space Across the World (Most Expensive Industrial Locations) – Cushman & Wakefield, 2011

1. London
2. Tokyo
3. Geneva
4. Singapore
5. Sydney
6. Hong Kong
7. San Francisco
8. Helsinki
9. Oslo
10. Paris

Ranking Global Cities (Economy, Technology, Intellectual Capital) – Martin Prosperity Institute, 2015

1. Ottawa-Gatineau
2. Seattle
3. Oslo
4= District of Columbia
4= Amsterdam
6= Tel Aviv-Jaffa
6= Copenhagen
6= London
9= Calgary
9= New York-Newark

Scorecard on Prosperity (Economy, Global Attractiveness, Transport) – Toronto Board of Trade, 2015

1. Paris
2. Stockholm
3. Calgary
4. Oslo
5. Toronto
6. Boston
7. San Francisco
8. Seattle
9. London
10. Sydney

Retail and Tourism Market Rankings

How Global is the Business of Retail? (City Retailer Representation) – CBRE, 2015

1. London
2. Dubai
3. Shanghai
4. New York
5= Singapore
5= Moscow
7. Hong Kong
8. Paris
9. Tokyo
10. Beijing

Main Streets Across the World (Most Expensive Retail Locations) – Cushman & Wakefield, 2016

1. Upper Fifth Avenue (New York)
2. Causeway Bay (Hong Kong)
3. Avenue Des Champs-Élysées (Paris)
4. New Bond Street (London)
5. Via Montepoleone (Milan)
6. Bahnhofstrasse (Zurich)
7. The Ginza (Tokyo)
8. Myeongdong (Seoul)
9. Kohlmarkt (Vienna)
10. Kaufinger/Neuhauser (Munich)

Mastercard Global Destination Cities Index (Tourism) – 2016

International overnight visitors

1. Bangkok
2. London
3. Paris
4. Dubai
5. New York
6. Singapore
7. Kuala Lumpur
8. Istanbul
9. Tokyo
10. Seoul

International overnight visitor spending

1. Dubai
2. London
3. New York
4. Bangkok
5. Tokyo
6. Paris
7. Singapore
8. Seoul
9. Kuala Lumpur
10. Taipei

International connectivity score (flight frequency to international destinations) – 2015 edition

1. London
2. Paris
3. Dubai
4. Frankfurt
5. Istanbul

Top City Destinations (International Tourism) – Euromonitor International, 2016

1. Hong Kong
2. London
3. Singapore
4. Bangkok
5. Paris
6. Macau
7. Shenzhen
8. New York
9. Istanbul
10. Kuala Lumpur

Travelers’ Choice Awards (Tourism) – Tripadvisor, 2016

1. London
2. Istanbul
3. Marrakech
4. Paris
5. Siem Reap
6. Prague
7. Rome
8. Hanoi
9. New York
10. Ubud

Livability Rankings

Mercer Quality of Living Index (Cost of Living, Healthcare, Environment, Transport) – 2016

1. Vienna
2. Zurich
3. Auckland
4. Munich
5. Vancouver

State of the World’s Cities (Productivity, Quality of Life, Infrastructure) – UN Habitat, 2013

1. Vienna
2= Helsinki
2= Oslo
4= Dublin
4= Copenhagen
6. Tokyo
7. London
8. Melbourne
9. Stockholm
10. Amsterdam

Commuter Pain Survey (Commuting Experience) – IBM, 2011

1. Montreal
2. London
3. Chicago
4. Stockholm
5. Toronto
6. New York
7. Madrid
8. Paris
9. Los Angeles
10. Buenos Aires

Global Liveability Report – EIU, 2014

1. Melbourne
2. Vienna
3. Vancouver
4. Toronto
5= Adelaide
5= Calgary
7. Sydney
8. Helsinki
9. Perth
10. Auckland

18= Paris
18= Tokyo

51. London
56. New York

Sustainable Cities Index – Arcadis, 2016

1. Zurich
2. Singapore
3. Stockholm
4. Vienna
5. London
6. Frankfurt
7. SeoulAmsterdam
8. Hamburg
9. Prague
10. Munich

Quality of Life Survey (Healthcare, Crime, Business, Education, Culture)- Monocle, 2016

1. Tokyo
2. Berlin
3. Vienna
4. Copenhagen
5. Munich
6. Melbourne
7. Fukuoka
8. Sydney
9. Kyoto
10. Stockholm

City Prosperity Index (Quality of Life, Productivity, Infrastructure, Equity, Environment) – UN, 2015

1. Oslo
2. Copenhagen
3. Stockholm
4. Helsinki
5. Paris
6. Vienna
7. Melbourne
8. Montreal
9. Toronto
10. Sydney …
18. London
23. New York

EIU Best Cities (Spatially-Adjusted Livability), Economist Intelligence Unit, 2012

1. Hong Kong
2. Amsterdam
3. Osaka
4. Paris
5. Sydney

12. London
16. New York

Infrastructure survey (Subset of Quality of Living Survey) – Mercer Consulting, 2012

1. Singapore
2. Frankfurt
3. Munich
5. Düsseldorf
6= London
6= Hong Kong

Cultural Rankings

Leading Culture Destinations – 2015

Jury Award – Best City for Culture: Manchester, UK
Jury Award – Best Emerging City for Culture: Mexico City
Jury Award – Best Art Experience in a Hotel: La Colombe D’Or, Saint-Paul-De-Vence, France

Leading Culture Destination 2015: Museum of Modern Art, New York
Exhibitions & Programming: Tate Modern, London
Architecture & Spatial Design: The Fondation Louis Vuitton, Paris
Eating & Drinking: Centre Pompidou, Paris
Shopping: Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Digital Experience: Museum of Modern Art, New York

Exhibition and Museum Attendance – The Art Newspaper, 2014

1. Louvre (Paris)
2. British Museum (London)
3. National Gallery (London)
4. Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York)
5. Vatican Museums (Vatican City)
6. Tate Modern (London)
7. National Palace Museum (Taipei)
8. National Gallery of Art (Washington DC)
9. National Museum of Korea (Seoul)
10. Musée d’Orsay (Paris)

Fashion Capitals – Global Language Monitor, 2016

1. Paris
2. Milan
3. London
4. New York
5. Los Angeles
6. Rome
7. Barcelona
8. Berlin
9. Madrid
10. Tokyo

Ultimate Sports Cities – SportBusiness Group, 2012

1. London
2. Melbourne
3. Sydney
4. New York
5. Manchester

Michelin Star Ranking of Cities (Dining) – 2012

1. Paris
2. Tokyo
3. New York
4. Hong Kong
5. Kyoto
6. London
7. Florence
8. Macau
9. Copenhagen
10. Berlin

Ultimate Fun City Ranking (Culture) – GoEuro, 2014

1. Berlin
2. London
3. Paris
4. New York
5. Tokyo
6. Hamburg
7. Rome
8. Vienna
9. Barcelona
10. Istanbul

Intellectual Capital, Competitiveness and Employment

Innovation Cities (Economic and Social Innovation) – 2thinknow Consulting, 2015

1. London
2. San Francisco-San Jose
3. Vienna
4. Boston
5. Seoul
6. New York
7. Amsterdam
8. Singapore
9. Paris
10. Tokyo

People Risk Index (Recruitment/Relocation Risk) – AON Consulting, 2013

1. New York
2. Singapore
3. Toronto
4= London
4= Montreal
6. Los Angeles
7= Copenhagen
7= Hong Kong
9. Zurich
10. Vancouver

Sea Turtle Index (Returns on International Education Investment) – EIU Bank of Communications, 2010

1. Montreal
2. London
3. Hong Kong
4. Toronto
5. Cambridge
6. Oxford
7. Boston
8. Sydney
9. Zurich
10. New York

Networked Society City Index – Ericsson, 2016

1. Stockholm
2. London
3. Singapore
4. Paris
5. Copenhagen
6. Helsinki
7. New York
8. Oslo
9. Tokyo

The World’s Crowdfunding Capital (Business) – Forbes, 2014

1. London
? New York
? San Francisco
10. Tokyo

Global Cities Competitiveness Index (Global Appeal, Economy, Human Capital) – The Economist, 2012

1. New York
2. London
3. Singapore
4. Paris
5. Hong Kong
6. Tokyo
7. Zurich

Competitive Alternatives (Business Costs) – KPMG, 2014

8. (Europe) London – 99.9 [Lower score ranks higher.]
21. (NE US) New York – 103.6

Global Urban Competitiveness Project (GDP per capita, Productivity, International Firms) – 2012

1. New York
2. London
3. Tokyo
4. Paris
5. San Francisco
6. Chicago
7. Los Angeles
8. Singapore
9. Hong Kong
10. Seoul

Academic Rankings

Best Student Cities (Ranking, Affordability, Employment, Social) – QS, 2016

1. Paris
2. Melbourne
3. Tokyo
4. Sydney
5. London
6. Singapore
7. Montreal
8. Hong Kong
9. Berlin
10. Seoul

Business School rankings – Financial Times, 2016

1. Insead
2. Harvard Business School
3. London Business School
4. University of Pennsylvania: Wharton
5. Stanford Graduate School of Business
6. Columbia Business School
7. University of California at Berkeley: Haas
8. University of Chicago: Booth
9. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Sloan
10. University of Cambridge: Judge

Academic Ranking of World Universities – Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2016

1. Harvard University
2. Stanford University
3. University of California at Berkeley
4. University of Cambridge
5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
6. Princeton University
7. Oxford University
8. California Institute of Technology
9. Columbia University
10. University of Chicago

World University Rankings – QS, 2016

1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2. Stanford University
3. Harvard University
4. University of Cambridge
5. California Institute of Technology
6. Oxford University
7. University College London
8. ETH Zurich – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
9. Imperial College London
10. University of Chicago

Characterising Scientific Production and Consumption in Physics (Physics Research) – Nature, 2013

1. Boston
2. Berkeley
3. Los Angeles
4. Tokyo
5. Chicago
6. Paris
7. Princeton
8. Rome
9. Piscataway
10. London

Global Attractiveness and Brand Image Rankings

The Wealth Report (Wealth, Investment, Connectivity) – Knight Frank, 2017

1. London
2. New York
3. Hong Kong
4. Shanghai
5. Los Angeles
6. Singapore
7. San Francisco
8. Beijing
9. Tokyo
10. Chicago

Decoding Global Talent (Global Attractiveness, Employment, Relocation) – Boston Consulting Group, 2014

1. London
2. New York
3. Paris
4. Sydney
5. Madrid
6. Berlin
7. Barcelona
8. Toronto
9. Singapore
10. Rome

City Brands Index (Global Brand Image) – Anholt-GfK, 2015

1. Paris
2. London
3. New York
4. Sydney
5. Los Angeles
6. Rome
7. Berlin
8. Amsterdam
9. Melbourne
10. Washington DC

Ipsos Top Cities Index (Business, Livability) – Ipsos MORI, 2013

1. New York
2. London
3. Paris
4. Abu Dhabi
5. Sydney

Top 29 Cities to Live In (Quality of Life, Relationships) – AskMen, 2012

1. London
2. Mumbai
3. Washington DC
4. Rio De Janeiro
5. Shanghai
6. New York
7. Cartagena
8. Hong Kong
9. Marseille
10. Melbourne

Government and Social Media: A Case Study of 31 Informational World Cities (Twitter, Youtube, Social Media Presence) – Mainka et al., 2014

1. Berlin
2. Seoul
3. Barcelona
4. New York
5. Vienna
6. Vancouver
7. Tokyo
8. Paris
9. Toronto
10. Milan

Cities Brand Barometer (Twitter, Facebook, Social Media Trends) – Guardian, 2014

1. Los Angeles
2. New York
3. London
4. Paris
5. Seoul
6. Barcelona
7. Rio De Janeiro
8. San Francisco
9. Las Vegas
10. Dubai

Billionaire Census (USD Billionaires) – WealthX/UBS, 2014

1. New York – 96
2. Hong Kong – 75
3. Moscow – 74
4. London – 67
5. Mumbai – 30
6. Singapore
7. Beijing – 26
8= Paris – 25
8= Riyadh – 25
10. Dubai – 24

Sunday Times Rich List (GBP Billionaires) – Sunday Times, 2014

1. London – 72
2. Moscow – 48
3. New York – 43

Forbes Top 10 Billionaire Cities – 2013

1. Moscow (84)
2. New York (62)
3= London (43)
3= Hong Kong (43)
5. Istanbul (37)
6. Sao Paulo (26)
7. Mumbai (24)
8. Seoul (23)
9. Beijing (21)
10= Dallas (18)
10= Paris (18)