More than one-third of Americans working in female-dominated industries such as real estate, healthcare, and education believe that the “glass ceiling” in their

How does race and ethnicity affect upward mobility in the United States?

My father was not well educated; he was a Chinese laundryman. However my father had friends who graduated from UC Berkely with degrees in chemistry, engineering, etc.; they also became laundryman. In my generation, I have friends with PhDs in Chemistry, Pharmaceutical chemistry etc.; they quite their job because of discrimination to become real estate broker, physician etc. In other words they got no where working for a white man’s company. They did better when they work for themselves. However in my lifetime many opportunities begin to open up. Upward mobility is possible. Many of my friends certainly took advantage of these opportunities.

Many minorities still complain of the “glass ceiling”. With the “glass ceiling”I feel race and ethnicity plays a lesser role; the “glass ceiling” is value based. Some minority being culturally different, lack certain values needed to break through the “glass ceiling” Further the “glass ceiling” may be a convenient excuse to justify one’s own inadequacy.

In my son’s generation, race and ethnicity does not seem to play a role in hindering his upward mobility. He works in the most exclusive white boys’ club, finance.

In summary my father and all his friends lived in Chinatown. Myself and all my friends live in the suburbs.